Research Paper: A Study on Tibet’s Utilisation of FDI (Translation I)

Translation: Christopher Aston 克强, 2013

A Study on Tibet’s utlisation of Foreign Direct Investment (西藏自治区利用外商直接投资,) published in Shenzhen’s China Development Institute (综合开发研究院,中国深圳)  ‘China Opening Journal’ 《开放导报》 April, 2013.

The authors highlight the low FDI inflows into the Tibetan Autonomous Region, and low utilisation of FDI in Tibet, even in comparison to other provinces in West China.

Part I shows evidence for the low FDI utilisation in Tibet.

A Study on Tibet’s Utilisation of Foreign Direct Investment

(English Translation)

 

Abstract*

Since the introduction of foreign enterprises in 1988, foreign direct investment in Tibet has been increasing. By now the characteristics of the utilization of FDI in Tibet are as follows: the scale of FDI is still small, the pulling effect of FDI to Tibet’s economy is limited; and contribution of foreign enterprises to the local investment is small. Based on the situation and characteristics of Tibet’s utilization of FDI, the article analyzes the potential of further utilization of FDI in Tibet and provides some countermeasures and suggestions so as to enhance the harmonious development between FDI and Tibet’s economy, resources, environment, etc.

Key words: Tibet, foreign direct investment, economic development

Year: 2013

Article No: 1004-6623(2013)03

Authors: Zhu Ruixue1,2 (朱瑞雪), Liu Xiuling1 (刘秀玲)

1.)     International Business School, Dalian Nationalities University

2.)     Graduate School, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics

*English abstract from original paper

 

Following China’s opening up and reform, foreign investment arrived in Tibet. With its unique geographical position, rich in resources, and many specialised industries, Tibet has huge development potential to consistently attract overseas businesses investment.

1. Overview of utilising FDI

In 1988 the Tibetan Autonomous Region (A.R.) brought in its first foreign enterprise, post which Tibet further opened up, thereafter experiencing a steady increase in FDI.

i.) Tibetan Autonomous Region’s scope of FDI utilisation

In recent years the scope of FDI in Tibet has been steadily expanding, covering more and more sectors. Specific statistics relating to Tibet’s utilisation of FDI data cannot be sourced from the Yearbooks or other materials, so for analysis purposes, this paper has taken the amount of foreign owned enterprise (FOE) investment as a substitute for the amount of FDI, as shown in Table 1 below:

Table 1: 2005 – 2009   Tibetan Autonomous Region FOE Investment

Year

FOE investment amount   (USD, millions)

YoY change (%)

Total No. FOEs

Foreign registered   capital share of FOE registered capital (%)

2005

351.31

6

100

68.4

2006

442.86

26

115

69.2

2007

508.65

15

129

71.8

2008

549.69

8

132

73.3

2009

635.79

16

243

74.5

Data Source: China Foreign Trade Statistics Yearbook (2006 –   2010), China Statistics Press

It can be seen from the table that over the past few years the amount of FOE investment and number of FOEs have increased quite quickly. The foreign party’s share of FOE registered capital has also been increasing, over 70% in the last few years, which shows the foreign party’s control over FOEs strengthening.

ii.) Foreign owned enterprise industry distribution

Along with the continuous increase of foreign investors to Tibet, the range of industry sectors has already expanded from fabric scouring, carpets, catering and entertainment, to ethnic handicrafts and other specialized industries. Presently the scope of foreign investment consists mainly of tourism, hotel and catering, food processing, medicine and healthcare, production of ethnic goods, mineral exploration, trade and commerce, brewery, machinery, transport, post and communications, real-estate, social services etc., touching upon more industries year on year.

iii.) Source of FDI and investment methods

FDI in Tibet comes mainly from Nepal, Hong Kong and the British Virgin Islands, with small amounts from other countries and regions, such as the United States, Cayman Islands, Taiwan, Macao, Singapore, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Investment is mostly in Sino-Foreign Joint Venture companies, some in Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises, with relatively few other types of Sino-Foreign cooperation investment.

2. Characteristics of FDI utilisation

Owing to the unique geographical position of the Tibetan Autonomous Region and its social economic conditions, Tibet’s use of FDI has the following characteristics.

i.) Low utilisation of foreign investment

Reliable figures show, Tibet’s national share of foreign investment and number of foreign firms is the smallest amongst all provinces. By taking comparison figures, we can use an index (IND) to compare the ability of different regions to attract FDI. Over a fixed time period, IND shows a region’s(i) FDI inflows in proportion to national(n) FDI inflows verses a region’s GDP as proportion of national GDP. This can be shown in the following formula:

IND i =

FDI i / FDI n
GDP i / GDP n

Under normal conditions, when a region’s economy expands, it absorbs more FDI, and the IND index will approach 1. Conversely, if the economy shrinks, the IND index will approach 0. Table 2 shows 2005 – 2009 FOE investment amounts used to calculate the Tibet foreign capital utilisation performance index. It can be seen that Tibet’s utilisation of foreign capital is quite low, around 0.16 – 0.19.

Table 2: 2005 – 2009   Tibet A.R. Investment Utilisation Performance Index

Year

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Tibet’s share of national   FOE investment (%)

0.024

0.026

0.024

0.024

0.025

Tibet’s share of national   GDP (%)

0.136

0.139

0.137

0.132

0.132

Tibet’s foreign   investment utilisation performance index

0.18

0.19

0.18

0.18

0.19

Data Source: Tibet Statistics Yearbook, China Statistics Press

ii.) Limited ability of foreign investment to stimulate the Tibetan economy

Regardless if compared at a national level or verses other ethnic minority provinces, the volume of FOE imports and exports (foreign trade) as a share of the total province imports and exports volume is relatively low, as table 3 shows. Tibet’s FOE foreign trade share of regional foreign trade barely reaches 1%; in 2010 the share was only 0.66%, less than Xinjiang’s share of 2.07%, Yunnan’s share of 4.8% and Qinghai’s 17.07%. Thus it is apparent, FOEs in Tibet as yet do not play a lead in advancing Tibet’s foreign development and relations, or in stimulating local economic growth.

Table 3: Comparison of   Tibet A.R. FOE Foreign Trade Share of Total Regional Foreign Trade vs. Other   Regions (USD, millions)

2009

2010

FOE foreign trade amount

Total regional foreign trade   amount

Share of regional foreign   trade (%)

FOE trade amount

Total regional foreign trade   amount

Share of regional foreign   trade (%)

Tibet

0.99

402.10

0.25

5.49

836.07

0.66

Xinjiang

273.62

13,947.83

1.96

355.10

17,130.11

2.07

Yunnan

435.93

8,047.60

5.42

644.99

13,430.12

4.80

Qinghai

194.32

586.79

33.11

134.67

788.96

17.07

National

1,217,478.36

2,207,535.00

55.15

1,600,615.24

2,973,998.32

53.82

Data Source: China   Statistics Yearbook (2011), China Statistics Press

iii.) Low contribution to local Tibetan investment from FOEs

In terms of Tibet’s fixed asset investment (FAI), FOE share of total FAI is very low, as shown in Table 4. In 2010, FOE share of national FAI was 6.12%, yet in Tibet only 0.57%. This share is not only low at a national level, but also low in comparison with other ethnic minority provinces such as Xinjiang, Yunnan and Qinghai, whose shares are 1%, 1.9%, and 2.3% respectively. Thus FOEs have a low impact on Tibet’s investment contribution rate, and are not being leveraged effectively in local economic development.

Table 4: 2007 – 2010   Tibet A.R. Foreign Fixed Asset Investment Share of Total FAI (RMB, millions)

Year

Foreign Fixed Asset   Investment (1)

Total FAI (2)

Share (%, (1)/(2))

Foreign

H.K. / Macau / Taiwan

Total

2007

17.90

38.00

55.90

27,118.11

0.21

2008

5.00

212.50

217.50

30,993.04

0.70

2009

28.05

—-

28.05

37,941.58

0.07

2010

83.39

180.00

263.39

46,325.85

0.57

Data Source: Based on Tibet Statistics Yearbook (2008 – 2011,   China Statistics Press) and related calculated data— Original Chinese text —

西藏自治区利用外商直接投资

朱瑞雪1,2,刘秀玲1

(1.大连民族学院国际商学院,辽宁 大连 116650;

2.东北财经大学研究生院,辽宁 大连 116025)

[摘要] 自1988年西藏自治区开始引进外资企业以来,西藏外商直接投资不断增长。但目前西藏利用外资还存在规模较小、外资企业对西藏经济拉动作用有限、外资企业对当地投资贡献率低的特点。本文对西藏进一步扩大利用外资的潜力进行了分析,并提出了西藏加强利用外资的对策和建议,以促进外资与西藏经济、资源、环境等协调发展。

[关键词] 西藏 外商直接投资 经济发展

[中图分类号] F063.6   [文献标识码] A   [文章编号]1004-6623(2013)03

[基金项目] 国家社会科学基金项目“民族地区利用外商直接投资研究”(项目编号:11BMZ043);大连民族学院自主科研基金重点项目“FDI与沿边民族省区发展特色开放型产业集群研究”( 项目编号:ZJ12RWZD010)。

[作者简介] 朱瑞雪(1979—),女,河南开封人,大连民族学院国际商学院讲师,东北财经大学研究生院博士研究生,研究方向:民族地区对外经贸、世界经济;刘秀玲(1964—),女,吉林松源人,大连民族学院国际商学院教授,研究方向:国际投资、民族地区对外经贸。

改革开放后,西藏的外资经济开始起步。独特的地理位置、极大的资源优势、诸多的特色产业、巨大的发展潜力不断吸引着海外客商来西藏投资。

 一、利用外商直接投资概况

1988年西藏自治区引进了第一家外资企业。此后,西藏对外开放进一步扩大,外商直接投资(FDI)逐步增长。

(一)西藏自治区利用外商直接投资规模

近年来西藏的外商投资规模逐年扩大,投资领域也越来越广。西藏利用外商直接投资金额的数据在各种年鉴和资料中没有准确统计,本文用外商投资企业投资额来代替外商直接投资额作为考查指标。如表1所示。

表1 2005-2009年西藏自治区外商投资企业投资情况

年份

外商投资企业投资额万美元

同比(%)

外商投资企业数(个)

外方注册资本占外商投资企业注册资本比例(%)

2005

35131

6.1

100

68.4

2006

44286

26.1

115

69.2

2007

50865

14.9

129

71.8

2008

54969

8.1

132

73.3

2009

63579

15.7

243

74.5

数据来源:《中国贸易外经统计年鉴》(2006-2010),中国统计出版社。

从表中可以看出,近几年西藏外商投资企业投资额和外资企业数量增长较快。外商投资企业外方注册资本占总注册资本的比例也越来越高,近几年都在70%以上,说明外方对外资企业的控制力越来越强。

(二)外商投资企业产业分布

随着来西藏投资的外商不断增加,外商投资的产业领域已从当初的洗毛业、地毯业、餐饮娱乐产业延伸到民族手工艺品加工、特色产业等领域。目前外商投资领域主要包括旅游服务、酒店餐饮、食品加工、医药保健、民族特色产品开发生产、矿产勘探、商业贸易、酿酒、机械设备、运输、邮电通信、房地产、社会服务等行业,涉及领域逐年扩大。

(三)外资来源和投资方式

西藏的外商投资主要来自于尼泊尔、香港和英属维尔京群岛,另外还有少量外资来自于美国、开曼群岛、台湾、澳门、新加坡、丹麦、英国等国家和地区。西藏的外商直接投资以中外合资企业为主,其次是外商独资企业,以中外合作方式进行投资的较少。

二、利用外商直接投资特点

由于西藏自治区独特的地理位置和社会经济条件,西藏利用外商直接投资呈现出以下几个特点。

(一)利用外资规模小

从绝对数来看,西藏自治区的外商投资企业投资额和企业数量在全国所有省(区)中都是最少的。从相对数来看,可以用一个地区吸引外资的业绩指数(IND)来表示。IND是指在一定时期内,该地区(i)FDI的流入量占全国FDI流入量的比例除以该地区GDP占全国GDP总量的比例。用数学公式可以表示为:

INDi=

FDIi/FDIn

GDPi/GDPn

通常一个地区经济规模越大,吸收的FDI就越多,IND数值就越接近1;反之,就越接近0。由外资企业投资额计算出2005-2009年西藏利用外资的业绩指数,见表2。可以看出,西藏利用外资业绩指数较低,处于0.16~0.19之间,这说明其利用外资的规模比例较低。

表2  2005~2009年西藏自治区利用外资业绩指数

年份

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

西藏外商投资企业投资额占全国比重(%)

0.024

0.026

0.024

0.024

0.025

西藏GDP占全国比重(%)

0.136

0.139

0.137

0.132

0.132

西藏利用外资业绩指数

0.18

0.19

0.18

0.18

0.19

数据来源:历年《西藏统计年鉴》,中国统计出版社。

(二)外商投资企业对西藏经济拉动作用有限

不管是和全国相比,还是和西部相邻的其他几个少数民族省(区)相比,西藏外商投资企业的进出口额都较低,其占全区总进出口额的比重也较低,如表3所示。西藏外商投资企业进出口总额占全区进出口总额的比例还不足1%,2010年该比例只有0.66%,低于新疆的2.07%、云南的4.80%和青海的17.07%。由此可知,西藏的外资企业在促进西藏对外经济发展和联系、拉动当地经济增长方面还没有起到带动作用。

  表3 西藏自治区与相邻省(区)外资企业进出口额对比情况  (单位:万美元)

2009

2010

外商投资企业进出口总额

各地区进出口总额

占比(%)

外商投资企业进出口总额

各地区进出口总额

占比(%)

西藏

99

40210

0.25

549

83607

0.66

新疆

27362

1394783

1.96

35510

1713011

2.07

云南

43593

804760

5.42

64499

1343012

4.80

青海

19432

58679

33.11

13467

78896

17.07

全国

121747836

220753500

55.15

160061524

297399832

53.82

数据来源:《中国统计年鉴》(2011年),中国统计出版社。

 

 

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